Wales

Wales was a kingdom to the west of the island of Great Britain with a strong cultural imprint from the Romano-British cultures that predate the 5th Century AD. Although it no longer legally exists, it remains a recognised nation within the Blessed Isles.

However, it was never a united entity. The closest incidence was after a significant proportion had become Cambro-Norman through the intermarriage of royal families and Norman marcher lords. Typically, this unity is dated from 1216 under Llewellyn ap Iorwerth (also known as “the Great”) of Gwynedd who had Hiberno-Norse connections. It ended in 1282 with the death of his grandson, Llywellyn ap Gruffudd (also known as “the Last”). There were a number of rebellions following the conquest, most notably that of another North Welsh prince, Owain I Glyndŵr, that led to the Principality of Wales being separated from the English crown from 1400 to 1439.

Somewhat ironically, thanks to intermarriage between noble and royal families, the English king who formalised the union between England and Wales with the Laws in Wales Acts of 1535 and 1542, Edmund V, was the great-great-grandson of Owain I Glyndŵr through the latter’s grandson Owain II as well as a cousin several times removed through a Tudor connection.

NOTE: Cornwall was regularly referred to as “South Wales” through the medieval period. While the land has been recognised as being part of England or in the King of England’s possessions, the cultural connections to Wales were more strongly referenced in many sources.

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