England was a kingdom to the south of the island of Great Britain that became a recognisable single kingdom in the 10th Century. As with Ireland and Scotland, it was formed by the amalgamation of several smaller kingdoms and regions. The most notable influences are a strong, cultural connection with the Germanic / Norse tribes of Denmark and Germany. The earliest English literature actually relates Danish and possibly Swedish histories.
Being near neighbours, the royal families of England and Scotland were both rivals and close relatives. The two lines were formally united in 1542 when Edmund V of England and James V of Scotland signed a peace agreement and entered their children into an engagement. The wedding ceremony occurred in Carlisle, as territory both kingdoms claimed, in 1558.
Both Edmund VI of England and Mary I of Scotland were committed to peace and uniting the island of Great Britain in one legal entity. They were unable to achieve this ambition themselves but their deaths brought about the Union of the Crowns when their son, James I / VI, inherited his father’s titles in 1567 and his mother’s in 1597.